Duck livestock is currently increasingly popular. The demand for duck meat continues to grow. In the past, duck farmers focused more on egg production, while meat was only a by-product. Duck meat is harvested after the egg-laying productivity period runs out. Now many ducks are meat-oriented.
The general public usually considers the same between ducks and ducks. In fact, there is little difference between ducks and ducks. Ducks have a leaner body, walk upright, their body resembles a bottle and their movements are agile. While the duck body is wider, runs horizontally and moves slowly. However, in this review, we do not distinguish between ducks and ducks, considering that in general the cultivation process is relatively the same.
Currently, there are special ducks for broilers and laying ducks. However, in reality, farmers in Indonesia raise ducks for both eggs and meat. Unlike chicken farming which is very specific and cannot be equated between laying hens and broilers.
Get to know the types of ducks
Java duck is a local Indonesian duck. This duck is widely cultivated on the island of Java. As a local duck, the Javan duck is quite productive in producing eggs. In a year this duck is able to lay 250-300 eggs. Ducks can start laying eggs at the age of 5-6 months, and remain productive until the age of 2 years.
Kalimantan duck or also known as alabio is one type of duck that is widely cultivated. Actually there is another type of duck from Kalimantan, namely the Nunukan duck. However, it is not as popular as the alabio duck. Alabio duck body size is larger than the Java duck. female duck is grayish yellow. The tips of the feathers on the wings, chest, neck and head are black. Alibio duck male all over his body is blackish gray. Alibio duck eggs are bigger than Java ducks. The ability to lay eggs of this duck ranges from 150-225 eggs per year.
As the name implies, this duck comes from Bali. It is said that at first it was a wild duck that was domesticated by local farmers to be tamed. Bali ducks have a variety of body colors. The ability to lay fewer eggs than the Javan duck and alabio duck, about 140-145 eggs per year. Bali ducks can only lay eggs normally after 23-24 weeks.
The Indian runner duck comes from the Netherlands and Belgium. This type of duck is suitable for cultivation in the Indonesian climate. In fact, many consider it as a native Indonesian duck. The body shape of the Indian runner duck is similar to the Javan duck, slender and walks upright like a bottle. His body color is brown. Egg production 150-250/season.
Besides the types of ducks above, there are ducks of various types of broiler ducks. Or commonly called ducks, namely Peking duck, Aylesbury duck and Muscovi duck.
Duck cage preparation
Duck farming can be done with the grazing method or the cage method. In the midst of increasingly difficult grazing land, now many breeders are turning to the cage system. There have been many breeders who have proven that with the cage system, duck cultivation is still productive in laying eggs. Here are some things that must be considered in the duck farming business.
a. Cultivation method
As mentioned earlier, there are two methods of raising ducks, namely the grazing method and the cage method. Both methods have their own pluses and minuses. The grazing method is widely used by traditional breeders, for example, farmers in the northern coast of Java.
With a grazing system, spending on feed can be more efficient. Ducks find their own food in nature, such as plants, worms and so on. Usually the quality of eggs produced by grazing systems is better, the yolk color is perfect. When processed into salted eggs are very good.
It’s just that this method can not necessarily be applied in all places. Given the increasingly limited land and labor of herders who are hard to come by, this method is becoming increasingly unpopular. On the other hand, cultivation methods with cages are getting more advanced. Some duck farming practices in cages show no less good productivity. The quality of the eggs produced can be controlled with proper feeding. There are several types of cages for ducks, here are the explanations:
- Yard type enclosure. This type of cage is in the form of a yard surrounded by a fence. Ducks have activities such as eating, drinking, swimming in this environment. This cage is open, but provided a cage for shelter. When night falls or it rains, ducks can enter to take shelter in the cage.
- Cage cage or postal type. It is a large building with a roof and walls. The walls are usually made of bamboo lattices. Ducks are allowed to roam in the cage environment. In the cage, various facilities are placed such as a place to feed, drink or if possible a swimming pool. The bottom of the cage can be soil or cement sprinkled with rice husk.
- Battery type enclosure. In this cage 1-2 ducks are placed in separate boxes. Usually made from bamboo lattices, as in intensive laying hens. The battery type enclosure can be placed indoors or outdoors. With the battery cage type, there is no pool for swimming.
b. Choose the type of cage
What type of cage is right for me? Maybe that’s the question that’s on the reader’s mind. The selection of the type of cage is closely related to the availability of resources such as location, land area, labor and capital. Here are things to consider in choosing the type of cage.
- If the available land is large enough, it can be considered a yard type cage. This cage requires a large area of land, but the investment for making a cage can be reduced because the duck’s activities will be spent in the yard. The yard cage is suitable for semi-intensive duck slag.
- If the available land is limited, the cage type or battery type can be considered. This type of cage does not require a large area of land, but the cost of making a cage is quite large. This type of cage is suitable for intensive cultivation.
- Also consider the purpose of duck farming. When the focus is on egg and meat production, a cage and battery system can be used. But if it is intended for breeding/reproduction, it is better to consider the type of yard or caged cage, in which a swimming pool is provided.
Choosing duck seeds
For maximum duck farming results, you should start by choosing good seeds. There are three ways to get duck seeds, namely:
Buy hatching eggs from ducks that have proven quality. Eggs incubate themselves in an incubator.
Produce their own eggs by mating male and female brooders. This can be done if we have quality seeds, and also have our own nursery facilities.
Purchase Day Old Duck (DOD) from a ranch store or other breeder.
Ternal ducks either for laying or broiler purposes need quality feed. In laying ducks, the quality of the eggs produced depends on the type of feed given. Here are the types of duck feed.
a. Feed type
There are two types of duck feed, namely natural feed and concentrate feed (manufacturers). Natural food can be snails and shrimp heads. While concentrate feed can be purchased at the factory, or to save can be mixed yourself.
When we buy feed from the factory, there are at least three types of feed for each growth phase. The initial phase is intended for ducks aged 0-8 weeks, the grower phase for the age of 8-18 weeks and the layer phase for the age of 18-27 weeks. Early-phase feed has at least 20-22% protein content, 17-19% grower phase and 15-17% layer phase.
b. How to feed
How to give feed to newly hatched ducks until they are 21 days old should be served in a feed tray (tray feeder). Meanwhile, ducks over 21 days old can be spread on the floor and given continuously. Likewise with the provision of drinking water, for ducklings 0-7 days you should add vitamins to drinking water. Furthermore, drinking water is provided in a special container in the cage continuously.